Cidade de David

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Coordenadas: 31°46′25″N 35°14′08″L / 31.77361, -35.23556

A cidade bíblica de David na época do Templo de Herodes. A muralla sur do Monte do Templo aparece na parte superior.

A Cidade de David (hebreo: עיר דוד, Ir David; tradución literal ao árabe: مدينة داوود, Madina Dawud, nome común en وادي حلوه, Wadi Hilweh) é un asentamento israelí, e un sitio arqueolóxico do que se cre que foi o núcleo urbano orixinal da antiga Xerusalén.[1][2][3][4][5] Suxerido en 1920, o nome comezou a utilizarse oficialmente na década de 1970, trala captura de Xerusalén Leste por parte do Estado de Israel. Hoxe en día o nome está cuestionado pola comunidade académica arqueolóxica.[1] En 1997 leváronse a cabo tarefas de mantemento no parque pola Ir David Foundation.[1] Malia que está situada dentro do municipio de Xerusalén, considérase un asentamento,[6][7][8][9] construído no territorio de Cisxordania que foi ocupado e anexado por Israel trala guerra dos seis días de 1967 e a lei de Xerusalén de 1980. A comunidade internacional considera o asentamento israelí ilegal segundo o dereito internacional, porén non acepta este criterio. Destacan dentro da cidade as estruturas da idade de Ferro atribuídas aos reis de Xudea, e tamén contén unha infraestrutura caanita da idade de bronce.

O sitio arqueolóxico está situado no barrio árabe de Wadi Hilweh, e esténdese desde a muralla sur da cidade vella. Os restos no sitio inclúen varios túneles de auga, un dos cales foi construído polo rei Ezequías e aínda leva auga no seu interior, carias piscinas entre as que está a piscina de Siloé mencionada tanto no Antigo e Novo Testamento, e neste lugar ou na próxima Ofel os investigadores esperan atopar, ou afirman que xa o fixeron, os restos de Acra,[10] unha fortaleza construída por Antíoco Epífanes para subxugar a aqueles xerosolimitanos que se opoñían á helenización. A arqueóloga Eilat Mazar pensa que un sitio arqueolóxico coñecido Grande Estrutura de Pedra, que descubriu na parte superior e presuntamente datado dos séculos X e IX antes de Cristo, poden ser o palacio do rei David.[11] Non lonxe do área de escavación apareceron un gran número de bullae cos nomes Guedalías fillo de Paxhur e Iucal fillo de Xelemías, dous oficiais mencionados no Libro de Xeremías.[12]

O área da Cidade de David é un dos sitios arqueolóxicos con maior número de escavacións da Terra Santa.[13]

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. 1,01,11,2 Wendy Pullan; Maximilian Sternberg; Lefkos Kyriacou; Craig Larkin; Michael Dumper (20 de novembro de 2013). "David's City in Palestinian Silwan". The Struggle for Jerusalem's Holy Places. Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-317-97556-4. However, right into the early twentieth century only the Virgin's Found (Ain Umm el-Daraj) and the Waters of Siloam (Ain Silwan) had any known historic or religious significance and the area had virtually no specific meaning for Judaism or local Jewish religious practice. In 1920, a French archaeologist first suggested renaming Wadi Hilweh 'La Cité de David', explicitly privileging this specific, speculative biblical tie as the narrative leitmotif of the successive exeavations, which have revealed extremely varied findings, both in type and chronological attributions. It was only in the 1970s, when a major Israeli excavation project was conducted, there that 'David's City' became the official Israeli designation, initially having no particular religious connotation, today, the term itself is increasingly questioned in the archaeological academic community. Since El'Ad took over the management of the park in 1997, 'David's City' has essentially become a religious-nationalist battle cry that has transformed the area from an ordinary Palestinian neighbourhood with a few excavation pits, largely unknown to the Israeli public, into a religious settlement and major national biblical monument with hundreds of thousands of visitors a year and an official education site for Israeli school children and soldiers. 
  2. [1]
  3. Ariel, D. T., & De Groot, A. (1978). "The Iron Age extramural occupation at the City of David and additional observations on the Siloam Channel." Excavation at the City of David, 1985.
  4. Broshi, M. (1974). "The expansion of Jerusalem in the reigns of Hezekiah and Manasseh." Israel Exploration Journal, 21–26.
  5. Reich, R., & Shukron, E. (2000). "The Excavations at the Gihon Spring and Warren's Shaft System in the City of David." Ancient Jerusalem Revealed. Jerusalem, 327–339.
  6. Wendy Pullan and Max Gwiazda, Jerusalem's 'City of David': The Politicisation of Urban Heritage, Divided Cities/Contested States Working Paper No. 6, 2008, p.12: "The 'City of David' is formally treated as a settlement; making homes for Jewish people is seen as an integral part of El-Ad's heritage stewardship"
  7. B'Tselem, The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, List of Settlement in the West Bank, updated May 2015
  8. The Independent, "Israeli foreign ministry cadets to defend 'legality' of West Bank settlements", 1 November 2015, "Among the new sessions to be added to the cadet's course are a lecture on the legality of the settlements based on the claim that the West Bank is not occupied territory, according to The Times of Israel. It also includes a tour of the “City of David” settlement in the Palestinian Silwan neighbourhood of East Jerusalem, to be led by settler leader David Be'eri, who seeks its transformation, based on biblical claims, into a Jewish area."
  9. Sixty-ninth session of the United Nations General Assembly, Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the occupied Syrian Golan: Report by the Secretary-General, A/69/348, 25 August 2014: "Archaeological excavations and parks are also used as a way to control land for settlements, mainly through the funding, participation and endorsement by the Government of Israel of archaeological projects led by settler organizations. Observer organizations report that several archaeological projects in the Old City of Jerusalem are being used as a means to consolidate the presence of settlements and settlers in the area. On 3 April 2014, despite several objections presented by Palestinian residents of the Silwan neighbourhood, a Palestinian community with a population of 45,000, located around the southern Old City wall in East Jerusalem, the Jerusalem District Planning and Building Committee approved a project known as the Kedem Compound.36 The Kedem Compound includes a museum, a visitors centre, and a parking lot covering around 16,000 square metres. The plan was presented by Israel's Nature and Parks Authority and the Ir David Foundation, also known as Elad, which works to strengthen the Jewish connection to Jerusalem, notably the Silwan area. The Kedem Compound would constitute a gateway to the City of David National Park, a touristic archaeological site controlled by the same organization."
  10. Eisenbud, D. (2015). "Archeological find in Jerusalem's City of David may answer ancient mystery", Jerusalem Post.
  11. Mazar, Eilat, 2009, "The Palace of King David, Excavations at the Summit of the City of David. Preliminary Report of Seasons 2005–2007." Jerusalem
  12. xeremias "36-40". A Biblia Galega. 
  13. Light at the End of the Tunnel: Warren's Shaft Theory of David's Conquest Shattered Arquivado 2014-08-01 en Wayback Machine., Ronny Reich and Eli Shukron, BAR January/February 1999: 22–33, 72, quote: "The area we are talking about – the eastern slope of the City of David and particularly the strip above the Gihon Spring – has been subject to more archaeological excavations and research than any site in Jerusalem, and even in Israel."

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