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Novo Imperialismo

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O "Coloso" Cecil Rhodes conecta co telégrafo, Cidade do Cabo e O Cairo. Revista Punch, 10 de decembro de 1892.

No contexto histórico, o Novo Imperialismo é unha política e período de expasión colonial das potencias europeas, os Estados Unidos e o Xapón durante finais do século XIX e comezos do XX.[1] O período supuxo unha carreira sen precedentes de novas adquisicións territoriais de ultramar. Daquela, os estados centráronse en construír imperios grazas a novos avances e desenvolvementos tecnolóxicos, facendo medrar o seu territorio a través da conquista e a explotación dos recursos dos países subxugados. Durante a era do Novo Imperialismo, as potencias occidentais (e o Xapón) conquistaron individualmente case toda África e partes de Asia. A nova onda de imperialismo reflectiuse en rivalidades entre as grandes potencias, o desexo económico de novos recursos e mercados, e o ethos da "misión civilizadora". Moitas das colonias creadas durante esta época acadaron a independencia na época da descolonización que seguiu á segunda guerra mundial.

O cualificativo "Novo" é empregado para diferenciar o imperialismo moderno da actividade imperial máis antiga, como a chamada primeira onda de colonización europea que se desenvolveu entre os séculos XV e XIX.[1][2] Na primeira onda de colonización, as potencias europeas conquistaron e colonizaron América e Siberia; despois crearon postos de avanzada en África e Asia.

Notas[editar | editar a fonte]

  1. 1,01,1 Louis, William Roger (2006). "32: Robinson and Gallagher and Their Critics". Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization (en inglés). Londres: I.B.Tauris. p. 910. ISBN 9781845113476. Consultado o 10 de agosto de 2017. [...] the concept of the 'new imperialism' espoused by such diverse writers as John A. Hobson, V. I. Lenin, Leonard Woolf, Parker T, Moon, Robert L. Schuyler, and William L. Langer. Those students of imperialism, whatever their purpose in writing, all saw a fundamental difference between the imperialist impulses of the mid- and late-Victorian eras. Langer perhaps best summarized the importance of making the distinction of late-nineteenth-century imperialism when he wrote in 1935: '[...] this period will stand out as the crucial epoch during which the nations of the western world extended their political, economic and cultural influence over Africa and over large parts of Asia ... in the larger sense the story is more than the story of rivalry between European imperialisms; it is the story of European aggression and advance in the non-European parts of the world.' 
  2. Gilmartin, Mary (2009). "9: Colonialism/imperialism". En Gallaher, Carolyn; Dahlman, Carl T.; Gilmartin, Mary; Mountz, Alison; Shirlow, Peter. Key Concepts in Political Geography. Key Concepts in Human Geography. Londres: SAGE. p. 115. ISBN 9781446243541. Consultado o 9 de agosto de 2017. Commentators have identified three broad waves of European colonial and imperial expansion, connected with specific territories. The first targeted the Americas, North and South, as well as the Caribbean. The second focused on Asia, while the third wave extended European control into Africa. 

Véxase tamén[editar | editar a fonte]

Bibliografía[editar | editar a fonte]

  • Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958), 736pp; basic survey
  • Aldrich, Robert. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion (1996)
  • Anderson, Frank Maloy, and Amos Shartle Hershey, eds. Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918), highly detailed summary prepared for use by the American delegation to the Paris peace conference of 1919. full text
  • Baumgart, W. Imperialism: The Idea and Reality of British and French Colonial Expansion 1880-1914 (1982)
  • Betts, Raymond F. Europe Overseas: Phases of Imperialism (1968) online 206pp; basic survey
  • Cady, John Frank. The Roots Of French Imperialism In Eastern Asia (1967)
  • Cain, Peter J., and Anthony G. Hopkins. "Gentlemanly capitalism and British expansion overseas II: new imperialism, 1850‐1945." The Economic History Review 40.1 (1987): 1-26.
  • Hinsley, F.H., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 11, Material Progress and World-Wide Problems 1870-1898 (1979)
  • Hodge, Carl Cavanagh. Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1914 (2 vol., 2007); online
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of events; online
  • Langer, William. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890-1902 (1950); advanced history; online
  • Manning, Patrick. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880-1995 (1998) online
  • Moon, Parker T. Imperialism & World Politics (1926), Comprehensive coverage; online
  • Mowat, C. L., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 12: The Shifting Balance of World Forces, 1898-1945 (1968); online
  • Page, Melvin E. et al. eds. Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia (2 vol 2003)
  • Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa: White Man's Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876-1912 (1992)
  • Stuchtey, Benedikt, ed. Colonialism and Imperialism, 1450-1950, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011
  • Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918 (1954) 638pp; advanced history and analysis of major diplomacy; online

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